# Impact calculation

The good people of Arizona university has developed an Earth Impact Effects Program, which basicly calculated what happens if something big and fast hit Earth. This is very fun to work with, if for instance we place our self 10km for the impact point of a 1km big iron comet, we get this result:

Distance from Impact: 100.00 km = 62.10 miles
Projectile Diameter: 1000.00 m = 3280.00 ft = 0.62 miles
Projectile Density: 8000 kg/m3
Impact Velocity: 51.00 km/s = 31.67 miles/s
Impact Angle: 45 degrees
Target Density: 2750 kg/m3
Target Type: Crystalline Rock

## Energy:

Energy before atmospheric entry: 5.45 x 1021 Joules = 1.30 x 106 MegaTons TNT
The average interval between impacts of this size somewhere on Earth during the last 4 billion years is 5.6 x 106years
Atmospheric Entry:
The projectile begins to breakup at an altitude of 31800 meters = 104000 ft
The projectile reaches the ground in a broken condition. The mass of projectile strikes the surface at velocity 50.8 km/s = 31.6 miles/s
The impact energy is 5.41 x 1021 Joules = 1.29 x 106MegaTons.
The broken projectile fragments strike the ground in an ellipse of dimension 1.54 km by 1.09 km
Major Global Changes:
The Earth is not strongly disturbed by the impact and loses negligible mass.
The impact does not make a noticeable change in the Earth’s rotation period or the tilt of its axis.
The impact does not shift the Earth’s orbit noticeably.
Crater Dimensions:
Crater shape is normal in spite of atmospheric crushing; fragments are not significantly dispersed.
Transient Crater Diameter: 23 km = 14.3 miles
Transient Crater Depth: 8.14 km = 5.05 miles

Final Crater Diameter: 34.8 km = 21.6 miles
Final Crater Depth: 0.861 km = 0.535 miles
The crater formed is a complex crater.
The volume of the target melted or vaporized is 48.1 km3 = 11.5 miles3
Roughly half the melt remains in the crater , where its average thickness is 116 meters = 380 feet

Time for maximum radiation: 0.691 seconds after impact

Visible fireball radius: 34.3 km = 21.3 miles
The fireball appears 78 times larger than the sun
Thermal Exposure: 2.51 x 107 Joules/m2
Radiant flux (relative to the sun): 550

Clothing ignites Much of the body suffers third degree burns Newspaper ignites Plywood flames Deciduous trees ignite Grass ignites

## Seismic Effects:

The major seismic shaking will arrive at approximately 20 seconds.
Richter Scale Magnitude: 8.7
Mercalli Scale Intensity at a distance of 100 km:

IX. General panic. Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well-designed frame structures thrown out of plumb. Damage great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations. Serious damage to reservoirs. Underground pipes broken. Conspicuous cracks in ground. In alluviated areas sand and mud ejected, earthquake fountains, sand craters. X. Most masonry and frame structures destroyed with their foundations. Some well-built wooden structures and bridges destroyed. Serious damage to dams, dikes, embankments. Large landslides. Water thrown on banks of canals, rivers, lakes, etc. Sand and mud shifted horizontally on beaches and flat land. Rails bent slightly.

Ejecta:
The ejecta will arrive approximately 144 seconds after the impact.
Average Ejecta Thickness: 2.92 m = 9.58 ft
Mean Fragment Diameter: 22.8 cm = 8.97 inches
Air Blast:
The air blast will arrive at approximately 303 seconds.
Peak Overpressure: 851000 Pa = 8.51 bars = 121 psi
Max wind velocity: 697 m/s = 1560 mph
Sound Intensity: 119 dB (May cause ear pain)

## Damage Description:

Multistory wall-bearing buildings will collapse. Wood frame buildings will almost completely collapse. Multistory steel-framed office-type buildings will suffer extreme frame distortion, incipient collapse. Highway truss bridges will collapse. Highway girder bridges will collapse. Glass windows will shatter. Cars and trucks will be largely displaced and grossly distorted and will require rebuilding before use. Up to 90 percent of trees blown down; remainder stripped of branches and leaves.

(cut)
Which is long talk for: you’ll be boiled, shaken by a 8.7 quake, hit by ejecta fracments 30cm big, hit by wind going 697 m/s (2509.2 km/h). A.k.a. you’ll die.